Barceló A, Piérola J, Esquinas C, de la Peña M, Arqué M, Alonso-Fernández A, Bauçà JM, Robles J, Barceló B, Barbé F.
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MS) occurs frequently in patients with obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). We hypothesized that aldosterone levels are elevated in OSAHS and associated with the presence of MS.
METHODS: We studied 66 patients with OSAHS (33 with MS and 33 without MS) and 35 controls. The occurrence of the MS was analyzed according to the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III (NCEP ATP III) clinical criteria. Measurements of plasma renin activity (PRA), aldosterone, aldosterone:PRA ratio, creatinine, glucose, triglycerides, cholesterol and HDL cholesterol were obtained at baseline and after CPAP treatment.
RESULTS: Aldosterone levels were associated with the severity of OSAHS and higher than controls (p = 0.046). Significant differences in aldosterone levels were detected between OSAHS patients with and without MS (p = 0.041). A significant reduction was observed in the aldosterone levels in patients under CPAP treatment (p = 0.012).
CONCLUSION: This study shows that aldosterone levels are elevated in OSAHS in comparison to controls, and that CPAP therapy reduces aldosterone levels. It also shows that aldosterone levels are associated with the presence of metabolic syndrome, suggesting that aldosterone excess might predispose or aggravate the metabolic and cardiovascular complications of OSAHS.
TRIAL REGISTRATION: The study is not a randomized controlled trial and was not registered.